Phonological Disorder

A pattern of speech sound errors


Phonological disorders are characterized by patterns of errors called phonological processes. While they might sound like speech sound errors, the same error is applied to words regardless of the sounds involved.  For example, if a child is deleting final consonant sounds, "cat" will become "ca" and "dog" will become "do"... it doesn't matter what that last sound is.


As with speech sound development, use of phonological processes follows a developmental sequence. At younger ages, some of these errors are typical and expected as children learn to talk.

Articulation Disorder

A speech sound disorder


People with articulation disorders have difficulty saying particular speech sounds such as /k/, /l/, /r/ or /s/.  


Speech sound acquisition follows a developmental sequence and your SLP knows when children are expected to make mistakes and when those mistakes should have been outgrown. Every speech sound error makes it a little more difficult for listeners to understand what is being said. So, it is important to determine what should be monitored and what should be treated.

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Learning to Speak Clearly

It is difficult for many


Your SLP will determine if your child's speech is typical for their age or in need of treatment. We specialize in:


  • Childhood Apraxia of Speech
  • Articulation Disorders
  • Phonological Processes and Disorders

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Voorhees, NJ 08043


Apraxia of Speech

A motor-speech disorder


People with apraxia have difficulty planning their movements. Their brains are often unable to tell their muscles what they should do and when they should do it. Their muscles work properly, but the instructions sent to them are scrambled.


Cheerful Chatter's SLP, Ellen McSpadden, is PROMPT-Trained. That means she is able to physically show people struggling with apraxia how to move their muscles. She uses this evidence-based approach and her years of experience to teach people to speak.

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All of the disorders above negatively affect speech clarity and intelligibility... they make it harder to understand what the person is saying.


If you suspect that your child is struggling to make themselves understood, contact us. Our SLP, Ellen McSpadden, will listen to your child, identify the type and frequency of errors and determine if those errors are typical for your child's age, immature and in need of therapy or atypical/rare and in need of intervention.